Saturday, 28 May 2011

The Indus and Ganges River Valleys

Describe the geography of the Indus and Ganges river valleys.

The Indus River crosses the Himalayas and empties into the Arabian Sea.
The Ganges River flows from the Himalayas into the Bay of Bengal.
The Indus and Ganges Rivers cut through mountains. They flow across Northern India and make farming possible in the river valleys.

How do the monsoons affect India and its climate?

India’s climate is dominated by the Monsoon. Monsoons help India become humid in the monsoon season. People of India depend on summer monsoons to provide life-giving rain. If the monsoon is weak, crops die and this can lead to famine. If the monsoon brings to much rain, overflowing rivers can then cause floods.

How did geography influence the building of Mohenjo-Daro?

Mohenjo-Daro was influenced by geography by having all of it planned. They wanted to be protected from incoming floods, so the city was built above the ground level. Canals helped to control flooding by catching overflow from the river. Also, a citadel was built on a hill that was surrounded by the wall. The wall protected the building from floods.

How was Mohenjo-Daro similar to modern cities?

Mohenjo-Daro was somewhat similar to modern cities. Its houses were built on a street grid which sort of looked like neighborhoods in modern cities. Many of the streets were covered with mud brick. Also, It had one of the most sophisticated drainage systems with drains running beneath the streets. Grains and surplus food was stored in big go-downs, properly constructed near Citadels.

Who were the Aryans?

The Aryans were newcomers to Mohenjo-Daro. They migrated from their homelands in central Asia. The Aryans drove horse-drawn chariots that helped them gain power. The word ‘Aryan’ in their language meant ‘noble’ or ‘highborn’. By their name we can guess that they must’ve been quite sophisticated.

How was it possible for the Aryans to spread their influence over the Indus and Ganges river valleys so successfully?

It was possible for the Aryans to spread their influence over the Indus and Ganges river valleys so successfully probably because they were such nomadic people. They spent a short amount of time in one place; spreading their ideas, languages and beliefs to the people, and then moved on to other places.

Textbook: The Indus and Ganges River Valleys. Section 1.

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